America's Most Endangered Rivers of 2015

The America’s Most Endangered Rivers® report highlights ten rivers facing urgent threats, and encourages decision-makers to do the right thing for the rivers and communities they support.

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Tell Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell to use every authority to preserve the Grand Canyon for all Americans to enjoy. Read more


1. Colorado River in the Grand Canyon

  • Arizona

Millions of Americans recognize the Grand Canyon as one of the most iconic landscapes on the planet. But this natural masterpiece of the Colorado River faces a battery of threats.

A proposed industrial-scale construction project in the wild heart of the canyon, radioactive pollution from uranium mining, and a proposed expansion of groundwater pumping at Tusayan, all threaten the Grand Canyon’s wild nature and unique experience that belongs to every American.

Unless the Department of the Interior acts to stop these threats, one of our nation’s greatest natural treasures will be scarred forever.

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About this Report

The America’s Most Endangered Rivers® report highlights ten rivers whose fate will be decided in the coming year, and encourages decision-makers to do the right thing for the rivers and the communities they support. It presents alternatives to proposals that would damage rivers, identifies those who make the crucial decisions, and points out opportunities for the public to take action on behalf of each listed river.

Get the 2015 report (PDF)

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map of endangered rivers
  • endangered river

    Outdated dam operations are putting healthy runs of salmon and other fisheries at risk. | Photo: Thomas O'Keefe

    2. Columbia River

    • Washington
    • Oregon

    The Columbia River is the lifeblood of the Pacific Northwest’s economy and environment. The river’s dams provide more than half the region’s electricity as well as flood control and irrigation, but they have also decimated the basin’s salmon and steelhead runs. As the Columbia River Treaty is renegotiated, the U.S. Department of State must put the importance of a healthy ecosystem on an equal footing with the benefits of hydropower and flood control. We can achieve this balance by releasing more water for salmon when they need it and providing fish passage beyond currently impassable dams. Since the last Treaty was negotiated a little over 50 years ago, this is an once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to do right by one of the nation’s most important rivers.

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  • “Holston

    Toxic chemicals from the Holston Army Ammunition Plant are putting local water supplies and the community's health at risk | Photo: Ben Collins [Flickr CC]

    3. Holston River

    • Tennessee

    The Holston River is rich in history and heritage, and today provides drinking water for tens of thousands of Tennessee residents, as well as water for industry, livestock, and recreation. However, the river and its communities are threatened by an army ammunition plant that has been contaminating water supplies with toxic chemical pollution for years. The U.S. Army and its Holston Army Ammunition Plant must immediately stop polluting the Holston River with harmful explosive chemicals.

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  • “Smith

    A proposed copper mine could harm a nationally-renowned wild trout fishery | Photo: Fisheye Guy Photography

    4. Smith River

    • Montana

    The Smith River is one of the most cherished floating and fishing destinations in Montana. The river is home to a nationally-renowned wild trout fishery, and provides prime habitat for dozens of fish and wildlife species. The river is threatened by a huge proposed copper mine in its headwaters that could seriously degrade water quality with acid mine drainage and toxic heavy metals. The State of Montana should not permit the copper mine unless it can be designed in a way that eliminates any risk to the river’s water quality and habitat.

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  • endangered river

    Excessive agricultural water withdrawals are putting water supply, water quality, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreation at risk | Photo: Tim Palmer

    5. Edisto River

    • South Carolina

    The Edisto River is one of South Carolina’s most popular rivers for paddling, fishing, and outdoor fun. It’s also the state’s most heavily used river for irrigation, and excessive agricultural water withdrawals are threatening water quality and the water supplies of other users. While the state’s permitting process requires industrial and municipal water users to meet requirements to safeguard river health and clean water, large agribusinesses get a pass. The South Carolina House of Representatives must pass H.3564 this year to end this unfair exemption so that the Edisto, and all of the state’s rivers, can continue to provide sustainable water supplies for all, while supporting river health and recreation.

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  • endangered river

    A proposed mine threatens to destroy 30 square miles of irreplaceable wild river habitat | Photo: Sam Weis

    6. Chuitna River

    • Alaska

    The Chuitna River supports Alaskan Native communities, wild salmon, abundant wildlife including moose, bear, and wolf, and excellent opportunities for hunting, fishing, and other recreation. PacRim Coal’s proposal to develop what would be Alaska’s largest open-pit coal strip mine at the Chuitna River’s headwaters poses an unacceptable threat to the economy and communities that rely on clean water and healthy salmon runs. Unless the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers denies the mine’s permit, this pristine wild river and its communities will be irreparably damaged.

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  • endangered river

    Strip mining, road construction, and metal processing would devastate this fragile, precious wild area | Photo: Tim Palmer

    7. Rogue-Smith Rivers

    • Oregon
    • California

    The Wild and Scenic Illinois Rogue (OR) and Smith (OR and CA) rivers are known for their healthy salmon runs, world-renowned plant biodiversity, and outstanding recreation. However, proposed nickel mining in these rivers’ headwaters threatens their unique values. Immediate closure of the area to mining is the most effective way to help prevent the development of nickel strip mines from turning the pristine headwaters of the highest concentration of wild rivers in the country into an industrial mining zone. The U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Department of Interior must withdraw this area from mining immediately to protect this wild treasure.

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  • endangered river

    Mining could destroy or degrade thousands of square miles of pristine forested wetlands and streams | Lori Andresen

    8. St Louis River

    • Minnesota

    Minnesota’s Arrowhead region is known for its pure and abundant waters, deep forests, expansive wetlands, and recreational opportunities. However, a proposed copper-nickel sulfide mine at the headwaters of the St. Louis River, the region’s main artery, threatens drinking water, wildlife, and the treaty-protected hunting, fishing, and gathering rights of the Ojibwe people. It is critical that state and federal regulators deny permits for the mine plan because it does not sufficiently protect the St. Louis River and its communities.

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  • endangered river

    Sewage pollution and water withdrawals are putting clean water, fish and wildlife, and recreation at risk | Photo: Tom Frundle

    9. Harpeth River

    • Tennessee

    The Harpeth River is one of the few free-flowing rivers in Tennessee. It flows through one of the fastest growing regions in the country, but remains an oasis for local families, anglers, and paddlers. The river’s waters, fish and wildlife, and recreation values are threatened by sewage and water treatment plant expansions. Unless state officials require state-of-the-art technology to improve sewage treatment, the river will be overwhelmed by treated sewage pollution and public health could be compromised.

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  • endangered river

    A new dam threatens to ruin healthy wetlands and wildlife habitat | Photo: Bonny Schumaker via On Wings of Care

    10. Pearl River

    • Louisiana
    • Mississippi

    The Pearl River runs through Central Mississippi and supports vital oyster reefs and marsh habitat in the Mississippi Sound. Coastal wetlands and commercial fisheries depend on the Pearl River’s flows. However, the river’s health has been compromised by the Barnett Dam north of Jackson, Mississippi. Now, a new dam has been proposed for the Pearl that would cause additional harm to river health, wetlands, and fish and wildlife habitat. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers must reject this unnecessary and ecologically harmful new dam.

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